The evolution of digital activism in Mexico: A story of two movements "EZLN" and "43 Ayotzinapa".


Palabras clave:

Digital activism, Mexico, Ayotzinapa, EZLN, social movements.


There is an important tradition in Mexico related with the use of the Internet as a strategy of communication for distributing subversive and alternative political discourse. Since mid-1995, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN), named after Manuel Castells as the first "informational guerrilla", until now with the use of social networks (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) as a platform for promoting alternative social movements such as "I am 132" and "43 Ayotzinapa". The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study in between the movements "EZLN" and "43 Ayotzinapa". It Focuses not only on studying their political propositions, but particularly on their tactics, the role played by technology in the construction of their discourse. Final outcomes will show not only the transformation of political alternative discourse in Mexico, but also in what way the technological change along the years has conditioned the form by which unsubordinated groups creates and spread information. How technological platforms such as Facebook and Twitter have facilitated the communication and social participation of movements, but also to understand until which level the rebel political discourse uses tactics that have been altered little in more than 20 years.

Biografía del autor/a

David Ramírez Plascencia, Universidad de Guadalajara

Born in Mexico (Guadalajara, 1980), he is a teacher and researcher. He holds a bachelor's degree in Law (2002) and a master's degree in Political Science (2006) from the University of Guadalajara, as well as a doctoral degree in Social Sciences from the College of Jalisco (2013). He is a full-time researcher and teaches subjects related with new information and communication technologies and their impact on society at the University of Guadalajara. He coordinated the University of Guadalajara's master's degree in Public Management in Virtual Environments and founded Paakat: Journal of Technology and Society. He has published essays and articles on technology and society and is a member of the National Research System of Mexico (Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, SNI), Level 1.


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Cómo citar

Ramírez Plascencia, D. (2018). The evolution of digital activism in Mexico: A story of two movements "EZLN" and "43 Ayotzinapa". Sphera Publica, 1(18), 2–14. Recuperado a partir de

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